結構句型.jpg

讀的英語文章多了,寫作自然會提升。這就好像聽的英語多了,口語語感也自然會提升一樣。我在大學學中英翻譯的時候中譯英經常比英譯中的分數要高,當時驚訝地發現自己中文竟然沒有英文好。而我有一個同學則正好相反,英譯中總是比中譯英學得要好。我就很好奇地問她為什麽覺得英譯中更簡單。

 

經過討論,我們發現,因為我平時比較喜歡讀英語文章,更了解英語單詞和語法的用法,所以寫英語文章時覺得更加順手。而她則相反,平時幾乎不看英語文章,喜歡看中文文章,所以寫英語文章時不知道從何入手,而寫中文文章就行雲流水。這讓我深深地體會到了閱讀對於寫作能產生的極大影響

 

當然啦,通過大量閱讀提升寫作是一個長期的過程,對於有些短時間內想拿分的考生來說可能不是那麽實用。但是即使是這樣也可以在短時間內通過閱讀迅速掌握有助提分的寫作技巧,只不過閱讀的方式可能需要從泛讀轉為精讀,仔細研究每一篇讀過的文章。接下來我就跟大家分享一下,如何通過閱讀英文文章提高寫作技巧。

 

所謂「工欲善其事,必先利其器」,在往下閱讀前,請先準備好一杯茶、一份點心以及一顆求知的心,然後跟著我一起慢慢的看下去吧!

 

想要通過精讀快速獲取實用的寫作技巧首先需要知道要看什麽,其次是要在閱讀的同時思考。

 

第一步:看結構

每一篇文章都是有其結構的,我們首先要把握它的結構。文章結構是一個很重要的東西,也是一個很容易被人忽略的東西。因為我們平時看文章,大腦可能會自動理解它的結構,而不會有意識地去總結和判斷這個結構。但是如果一篇文章沒有一個合理的符合邏輯的結構,你讀完後一定會不知其所云,理解不了它的內容。

 

舉例來說,以下是從ABC News任意截取的新聞片段。

 

Parents can promote gender equality and help prevent violence against women. Here's how

Start early, at home

 

(1)   Early childhood is a key developmental period when children begin to learn about gender.

(2)   Gender is different from a person's biological sex. A person's sex is based on physical features such as anatomy, hormones and reproductive organs. Their gender is the way they think and act based on learned roles and social expectations.

(3)   From birth, children learn about gender-appropriate attitudes and behaviours through gender socialisation. They learn to "do" gender through internalising gender norms and roles as they interact with people around them.

(4)   Families are primary agents of gender socialisation, and often provide children's first sources of information and learning about gender.

(5)   Children begin to understand and act out gender roles and stereotypes at an early age.

(6)   The degree to which they internalise and adopt stereotyped attitudes and behaviours can have long-term effects on their attitudes, behaviours and values.

(7)   People who support rigid gender roles and relations are more likely to endorse attitudes that justify, excuse, minimise or trivialise violence against women, or blame or hold women at least partially responsible for the violence against them.

(8)   Not all boys who play with trucks are going to end up violent. But traditional masculine gender roles and ideologies (for example, "men need to be tough") are associated with men's violence against women.

(9)   Researchers have yet to carry out longitudinal (long-term) studies to directly track the impact of early education in the home on outcomes related to gender equality and violence against women.

(10) However, research suggests parents can play an important role in promoting gender equality and building children's resilience to rigid gender stereotypes in early childhood, a key action to prevent violence against women.

 

結構歸納:

(1)~(8) 解釋為什麽早期教育和男性對女性的暴力有關。

(1)~(6) 性別認知中固化性別認知與男性對女性的暴力的聯繫。

(1)~(2) 生理性別和認知性別的區別;孩子從童年早期開始了解認知性別。

(3)~(4) 孩子在童年早期從周圍人尤其是家庭中學習、發展、適應自己認知及性別(gender)。

(5)~(6) 孩子理解並接受特定特定性別角色和固化思維。

(7)~(8) 性別認知中固化性別認知與男性對女性的暴力的聯繫。

(9)~(10) 結論“早期教育”,也就是父母的教育對性別平等和孩子對固有性別認知的正確教育對預防男性對女性的暴力有很重要的影響。

 

如果不分析文章的結構,順著讀下來後再回顧,你可能會覺得有點亂,好像每段都在講不同的東西。但分析文章的結構之後,你會發現其實每段之間都有聯繫,而且都符合大的結構目的。明白文章結構了之後再重新閱讀這篇文章,你會發現原本很長的一篇文章,變成了兩大塊內容明確的文字,大致一看

 

於是這個技巧就可以被我們用於寫作之中,先想清楚結構,再逐漸展開,你會發現思維更清楚也更容易寫夠字數。比如在寫下述雅思寫作題目時:Pressure on the school and university students is increasing and students are pushed to hard work. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?

 

表明觀點:我認為這是積極的。

原因:壓力有助於鍛煉學生的綜合能力,減輕學生進入社會後的壓力。

展開:(1) 壓力的正向作用:有助於激發出一個人最快的工作速度,快速解決問題的能力等等。

          (2) 壓力具體能給學生帶來的正向影響:可舉例,或引述自己的經歷和經驗。

          (3) 在社會上工作的壓力來源:短時需要完成大量工作,突發事件需要迅速應對等等。

          (4) 舉例說明壓力給學生帶來的正向影響如何能減輕學生進入社會後的壓力。

結論:壓力有助於鍛煉學生的綜合能力,減輕學生進入社會後的壓力。

 

 

[中場休息時間] 眼球轉一轉,起來動一動之後再繼續看下去吧!下面要說的是句型。

 

 

第二步:看句型

學習正統的英語書寫方法最快最有效的方式就是參考正統的英文句子。不管是單詞還是句型,只有把它放在一個真正完整的句子中,你才能真正理解它的用法。這就是從閱讀學習寫作最好的一點,因為你可以從一個整體的角度體驗正統的句型和單詞的用法。

 

還是上面這篇文章,我們可以學習它的句型用法。這篇文章的句型整理如下:

 

Parents can promote gender equality and help prevent violence against women. Here's how

Start early, at home

(1)   Early childhood is a key developmental period when children begin to learn about gender.

(2)   Gender is different from a person's biological sex. A person's sex is based on physical features such as anatomy, hormones and reproductive organs. Their gender is the way they think and act based on learned roles and social expectations.

(3)   From birth, children learn about gender-appropriate attitudes and behaviours through gender socialisation. They learn to "do" gender through internalising gender norms and roles as they interact with people around them.

(4)   Families are primary agents of gender socialisation, and often provide children's first sources of information and learning about gender.

(5)   Children begin to understand and act out gender roles and stereotypes at an early age.

(6)   The degree to which they internalise and adopt stereotyped attitudes and behaviours can have long-term effects on their attitudes, behaviours and values.

(7)   People who support rigid gender roles and relations are more likely to endorse attitudes that justify, excuse, minimise or trivialise violence against women, or blame or hold women at least partially responsible for the violence against them.

(8)   Not all boys who play with trucks are going to end up violent. But traditional masculine gender roles and ideologies (for example, "men need to be tough") are associated with men's violence against women.   

(9)   Researchers have yet to carry out longitudinal (long-term) studies to directly track the impact of early education in the home on outcomes related to gender equality and violence against women.

(10) However, research suggests parents can play an important role in promoting gender equality and building children's resilience to rigid gender stereotypes in early childhood, a key action to prevent violence against women.

 

        … is a key developmental period when …

        … is different from …

        … is based on… such as …

        From …, … (時間狀語前置)

        …as…

        …begin to … at an early age.

        The degree to which … (定語從句*1)

        … can have long-term effects on …

        people who … (定語從句*1)

        … are more likely to …

        Not all….

        end up…

        … are associated with …

        … have yet to …

        However, …

        … can play an important role in …

        … , a key action to …(同位語從句*2)

 

這次先給大家總結到這裡,下次會接著給大家總結閱讀時可以思考的單詞、同義詞的問題。希望大家以後閱讀(精讀)的時候,可以知道如何通過分析每篇文章的寫作技巧提升自己的寫作能力,這樣從每一篇讀過的文章積累下來,你會發現提高的很快哦~

 

*1定語從句(The Attributive Clause):在一個複合句中,跟在主句後修飾某一名詞或代詞(統稱為先行詞)的從句叫做定語從句,如When, Which,Where,Who,How

*2同位語從句(Appositive Clause):一般放在抽象名詞 fact , news , idea 等詞之後,從句中的基本句子成分是完整的。另一個與定語從句主要區別是:同位語從句一般只用 that 引導。

 

 

Post by Ivy & Kelly

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